Официальный сайт ГБОУ Гимназии №441 Санкт-Петербурга

Официальный сайт ГБОУ Гимназии №441 Санкт-Петербурга

Официальный сайт ГБОУ Гимназии №441 Санкт-Петербурга

Официальный сайт ГБОУ Гимназии №441 Санкт-Петербурга

Официальный сайт ГБОУ Гимназии №441 Санкт-Петербурга

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Английский язык.


Гордина Анна Олеговна

                      Учитель высшей квалификационный категории.                    

                      e-mail:gordina.ao@gymnasium441.ru

 

-Entertaining English
(Занимательный английский)
План
1.    Занимательные идиомы английского языка
2.    Пословицы и их русский эквивалент
3.    Скороговорки и считалки
4.    Дополнительный материал по теме Защита окружающей среды
 Занимательные идиомы английского языка
Английский язык очень богат идиоматическими выражениями, пословицами и поговорками, которые постоянно встречаются в литературе, в газетах, в фильмах, в передачах радио и телевидения, а так же в каждом дневном общении англичан, американцев, канадцев, австралийцев. Английская идиоматика, очень разнообразная, достаточно сложна для изучающих английский язык. Из известных науке языков нет таких, в которых бы совсем не было идиом, фразеологических оборотов, пословиц и поговорок. Но английский язык обошел всех.
Примеры фразеологизмов можно приводить бесконечно долго. Кажется, что их запас не исчерпаем, как неисчерпаемы и богаты ресурсы разных народов с их интереснейшими традициями. Мы, употребляя теперь различные фразеологические сочетания, попросту пользуемся теми увесистыми штампами, которые выбили для нас наши далекие предки. И со своей стороны мы сами сейчас готовим для наших потомков новые штампы. Правда, сами мы этого не осознаем. И хотелось бы надеяться, что не одними канцелярскими штампами и иностранными словами обогатим мы речь последующих поколений.
Пословицы и поговорки, являясь частью культуры данного народа, всегда оставались и останутся актуальными, несмотря на развитие экономики и техники, на прогресс и т. д. В любое время пословицы и поговорки будут характерной чертой данного народа, объектом внимания и исследования.
1) пословицы и идиомы многозначны и ярки. Они находятся вне времени и вне классового деления, т.е.  их произносят как богатые люди, так и люди низших слоев общества.
2) идиомы и поговорки английского языка довольно-таки трудны для перевода на другие языки.
3) почти в любом языке можно подобрать пословицы и идиомы соответствующие  английским.
4) многовековой опыт общения народов, говорящих и пишущих на различных языках, свидетельствует о том, что мы должны не только понимать смысл переводимого текста, но и владеть фразеологическим богатством языка, на который осуществляется перевод.
При общении на иностранном языке важно не только обладать большим словарным запасом, но и использовать такие выражения как идиомы и пословицы. Здесь представлены наиболее известные фразеологизмы, пословицы и считалки английского языка.


   There's a rumor going the rounds !!!
Carl

Why is Dave looking so gloomy ?
Jeanne

Haven't you heard the latest ?
Carl

No, I've been out of tow
n for a couple of days on a business trip.
Jeanne

Well, there's a rumor going the rounds that the board is thinking of closing down his department.
Carl

Oh, that's tough. Why would they want to do that ?
Jeanne

Well, it's said that they're developing a new business strategy and Dave's department doesn't figure in it.
Explanation :

 Go the rounds - To go from person to person or place to place
 Example : The doctor is doing his rounds of the ward.
 
When pigs fly !!!
Freddy

Can you give me 500 dollars ?
Sharon

Sure I can. When pigs fly.
Freddy

But I would give my friends 500 dollars if they really need it.
Sharon

I asked you for 500 dollars two weeks ago, and you said no !
Freddy

I thought it would be bad for you to borrow money. It's better for you to learn how to manage your resources.
Sharon

That's ridiculous !
Freddy

Now I'm trying to teach you the importance of generosity. So, 500 dollars, please.
Sharon

I wish I could teach you the importance of leaving me alone.
Explanation :

 When pigs fly - never
 Example :  Sure he'll pay for the drinks -- when pigs fly. The rat race !!!

Fiona

Every day, it's the same old thing.
Joey

What do you mean ?
Fiona

Take the bus, go to work, punch in, punch out. What's the point ?
Joey

Well, you know, make money, do a good job. That sort of thing.
Fiona

Well, I'm just not interested in the rat race.
Joey

What would you rather be doing ?
Fiona

I'd like to be making movies.
Joey

Fiona, you hardly ever watch movies. And when you do, you don't pay attention.
Fiona

Well, if I made a movie, I would pay attention to it !
Explanation :

 The rat race - a way of life in modern society, characterized by people competing with each other for power and money
 Example :  He decided to get out of the rat race, and went to work on a farm.
 
Top dog !!!
Simon

Hey, you ! Tuck in your shirt. This is an office, not a party !
Chris

What ? Who do you think you are ?
Simon

I'm Simon, the filing clerk.
Chris

Well, I'm the boss !I'm the top dog around here !  

Simon
Oh. Well, I still think you should tuck in your shirt.
Chris
Ha, ha ! You're very responsible. I'm going to promote you to assistant manager.
Simon
Great ! Now, listen to me for a minute. Tuck in your shirt, or you're fired.
Chris
Now you're really going too far.
Explanation :
Top dog - a person who is in charge The world is your oyster !!!

Suzanne
I'm so depressed.
Leonard
Why ? What's wrong ?
Suzanne
I don't know. I am afraid I don't have much of a future.
Leonard
What are you talking about ? You're young, smart, and talented. The world is your oyster.
Suzanne
You really think so ?
Leonard
Sure ! I'll bet you will even become famous someday.
Suzanne
But if I'm famous, I'll have to try to avoid photographers all the time.
Leonard
Okay, but –
Suzanne
I'll never have a moment's peace. They'll invade my privacy.
Explanation :
 The world is your oyster - Everything is going well
 Example :  I was younger then, and the world was my oyster. I won't tell a single soul !!!

Fay
Can you keep a secret ?
Sadie
Well of course. You know me.
Fay
Promise not to tell anyone ?
Sadie
I wont' tell a single soul.
Fay
Well, I've just seen Jacquie and she told me that she and Peter have agreed to separate.
Sadie
Oh, my god ! They haven't been married that long.
Explanation :
 Soul - A human being
 Example : By the time I arrived there wasn't a soul there. I can't quite put my finger on it !!!

Nigel
Now you've had a good look at it, what do you think about the new window display?
Jane
It's certainly very striking, very colorful.
Nigel
You don't sound totally enthusiastic.
Jane
Well the theme is " spring " but I'm not sure that the design is really suitable
Nigel
What exactly don't you like about it ?
Jane
I'm not sure. I can't quite put my finger on it. Give me a bit more time to think about it.
Explanation :
 Put your finger on sth - To discover the exact reason why a situation is the way it is, especially when something is wrong
 Example : You put your finger on it when you said an unbalanced diet was the root of her ill health.
 
Your father will never wear it !!!
Cissy
Mum, Ginny's just telephoned to ask if I'll go with her to the disco tonight.
Mother
That should be all right. What time does it finish ?
Cissy
Well, it's an all-night disco actually.
Mother
What ! I'm not going to have you staying out all night. You're far too young.
Cissy
Oh Mum, come on. Ginny and I will stick together. We'll be all right.
Mother
No, no way. And anyway, you know your father will never wear it.
Explanation :
 Wear - To permit or accept something
 Example : If we three take this afternoon off, do you think the boss will wear it ? Working hand in glove !!!

Tim
I see the number of homeless people is a lot lower than when I was last in this town.
Marie
That's true. When you were last here the numbers were double what they are now.
Tim
What's the reason for the fall ?
Marie
Well the main reason is that the town council has been working hand in glove with local charities for several months now to try to bring the numbers down.
Tim
Well, they've certainly been having some success.
Marie
Yes, it's really very encouraging.
Explanation :
 Hand in glove - In close cooperation
 Example : Several police officers were found to be working hand in glove with drug traffickers. Zip your lip quick !!!

Russell
We're all so frustrated because our departmental manager is just hopeless.
Joanne
What do you mean exactly ?
Russell
Well he doesn't know how to manage people. He just antagonizes everybody. We're all hoping he'll get fired.
Joanne
Don't look round now, but you'd better zip your lip quick.
Russell
Why what's the matter ?
Joanne
He's heading straight for us.
Explanation :
 Zip your lip - Be quiet, stop talking
 
Example : Hey, zip your lip, I'm sick of your nagging me all morning. Английские пословицы и их русский эквивалент
Само собой разумеется.
It goes without saying. Сам заварил кашу, сам и расхлебывай.

As you brew, so must you drink. Свет клином (не) сошелся.

There are other possibilities. С волками жить – по-волчьи выть.

Who keeps company with the wolf – will learn to howl. You should run with the pack.

Своя рубашка ближе к телу. Charity begins at home.

Everyone is out for himself. С глаз долой – из сердца вон.

Out of sight, out of mind. Сделанного не воротишь.

What’s done cannot be undone. Семь раз отмерь, один раз отрежь.

Look before you leap. С иголочки.

Neat as a new pin. Сказать легче, чем сделать.

Easier said than done. Сколько людей, столько идей (умов).

Many men, many minds
Like a needle in a haystack.

Словно иголка в стоге сена. Слово – не воробей, вылетит – не поймаешь.

Better the foot slip than the tongue. Слово – серебро, молчание – золото.

Speech is silver but silence is golden. С мертвого и с голого ничего не возьмешь.

Death pays all debts. С миру по нитке – голому рубашка.

Many a little make a mickle.
Снявши голову, по волосам не плачут.

Big things count, not little ones. Соловья баснями не кормят.

Talk is cheap – time to eat. С паршивой овцы хоть шерсти клок.

Everything is good for something. Старо как мир.

As old as the hills. Тише едешь – дальше будешь.

Slow and steady wins the race. У семи нянек дитя без глазу.

Many commanders sink the ship.
Everyone’s business is nobody’s business. У всякой собаки есть свой день (радости).

Every dog has his day.
Ум хорошо, а два лучше.
Two heads are better than one.
Four eyes see more than two. У семи нянек дитя без глазу.

Too many cooks spoil the broth. Услуга за услугу

One good turn deserves another.
Долг платежом красен.
Roll my log and I will roll yours. Утро вечера мудренее.

An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.
Учиться никогда не поздно.

It is never late to learn. Хорошо смеется тот, кто смеется последним.

He laughs best who laughs last.
Скороговорки и считалки на английском языке
B
A big black bug bit a big black bear, made the big black bear bleed blood.
B
Blake's black bike's back brake bracket block broke.
B-TT
Betty Better bought some butter. "But," she said, "this butter's bitter.
If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my bitter batter better."
So she bought a bit of better butter and made her bitter batter better.
Bl-Bee
One black beetle bled only black blood, the other black beetle bled blue.
Ea
Each Easter Eddie eats eighty Easter eggs.
F
There was a young fisher named Fisher who fished for a fish in a fissure.
F
The fish with a grin, pulled the fisherman in; now they're fishing the fissure for Fischer.
Fl
A flea and a fly flew up in a flue. Said the flea, "Let us fly!" Said the fly, "Let us flee!" So they flew through a flaw in the flue. Gr-G

Great gray goats
M-N-G
Can you imagine an imaginary menagerie manager
imagining managing an imaginary menagerie?
Oi-Oy
What noise annoys an oyster most?
A noisy noise annoys an oyster most.
Ow
Clowns grow glowing crowns.
Pe-Pi
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
Did Peter Piper pick a peck of pickled peppers?
R-Wh
Ripe white wheat reapers reap ripe white wheat right.
S-Sh
The soldier's shoulder surely hurts!
S-W-Ch
There's a sandwich on the sand which was sent by a sane witch.
Sh
Shy Shelly says she shall sew sheets.
Sh-S-Sl
She sees seas slapping shores.
Si-Sea
Six sick sea-serpents swam the seven seas.
Si-Sh
The sixth sick sheik's sixth sheep's sick.
Si-St
Six stick shifts stuck shut.
Sl-Sh
I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.
St-Sk-Th
A skunk sat on a stump and thunk (thought) the stump stunk, but the stump thunk the skunk stunk.
Sw
Swan swam over the sea. Swim, swan, swim! Swan swam back again. Well swum, swan!
T
The two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel.
T-W-Ch
If two witches would watch two watches, which witch would watch which watch?
Tw
Twelve twins twirled twelve twigs.
Tw-Th
A twister of twists once twisted a twist.
and the twist that he twisted was a three twisted twist.
now in twisting this twist, if a twist should untwist,
would the twist that untwisted untwist the twists.
W-Ch-Sh-Ck
Which witch wished which wicked wish?
W-One
One-One was a racehorse; Two-Two was one, too.
When One-One won one race, Two-Two won one, too.
W-Th
Whenever the weather is cold.
Whenever the weather is hot.
We'll whether the weather,
whatever the weather,
whether we like it or not.
Дополнительный материал по теме Защита окружающей среды (Protection of environment)
Введение
Глава 1 The Environment: Problems and Solutions
Глава 2 Climate
Глава 3. Endangered species Введение

Данный материал предназначен для девятых - одиннадцатых  классов, школы гимназического типа, изучающих английский язык со второго класса по расширенной программе обучения английскому языку.
Целью данной работы является совершенствование лексических и разговорных навыков учащихся по теме Защита окружающей среды.
В соответствии с заявленной целью были поставлены следующие задачи :
1. подобрать лексический материал по теме Защита окружающей среды в соответствии с уровнем знаний умений и навыков учащихся в области английского языка
2. Подобрать тексты по данной теме
3. Разработать задания к определенным текстам, направленные на контроль понимания учащимися прочитанного, и умения активизировать новые языковые явления
4 разработать серию условно – речевых и языковых упражнений, направленных на развитие и закрепление знаний учащихся по данной теме
5. разработать коммуникативные задания по данной теме, с целью развития речевых навыков учащихся и закрепления необходимого лексического минимума в активном словаре учащихся.
Данный материал состоит из трех глав. Каждая глава состоит из условно – речевых упражнений, текста, заданий по тексту, различных языковых упражнений, коммуникативных заданий. Первая глава посвящена знакомству с новым лексическим материалом по теме Защита окружающей среды. В данной главе рассматриваются основные проблемы окружающей среды. Вторая глава посвящена климатическим проблемам окружающего мира. В третьей главе рассматриваются проблемы, касающиеся животных, находящихся под угрозой вымирания.
Данная материал предназначена как для работы в классе, так и для самостоятельной работы.

Глава 1 The Environment: Problems and Solutions

Essential vocabulary
Acid rain
Disaster
Dump
Dustbin
The environment
To harm/damage/destroy/pollute the environment
To protect/look after the environment
Environmentalist/green
Exhaust fumes
Finite resources
Flooding
Global warming
    The greenhouse effect
To litter/rubbish/refuse/waste/trash
Pollution
To pour waste into water
Power station
Purification system
To recycle
Recycling centers
To reduce
Solar/wind/wave power
Toxic waste
Ultraviolet light Vocabulary practice

1. Match word combinations with their translations
To pollute the atmosphere            токсичные отходы
Rubbish bin                        парниковый эффект
Environmental problems                загрязнять атмосферу
Endangered species                электростанции
Acid rain                        мусорный бак
The greenhouse effect                переработанная бумага
Ultraviolet light                    солнечная энергия
Solar power                        проблемы окружающей среды
The ozone layer                    исчезающий вид
Power station                    кислотный дождь
Toxic rain                        ультрафиолетовые лучи
Recycled paper                    озонный слой
2 Put in an appropriate word or word combination

a) All the bottles we use now made from……glass.
b) Wolves used to be common throughout Europe, but are now…….
c) The biggest……today is a car.
d)……is an organization that fights to protect……
e)……is the layer of gases that protects us from……the sun.
f) In the last few years the news has been full of stories of hurricanes, floods, droughts and other ……caused by the weather.
3. Put the words in the right order

1. and of in thousands live the Thousands animals rainforests.
2. floods homes to rose thousands the had of canals people rivers their in higher of and The higher and leaves water because the and danger of
3. does long desert in time a Sometimes not very climates it for rain
4. underground or nearer cables the electricity into goes houses ground by sometimes The 4. What do people throw away? Complete a spidergram.
5. Explain the following:
Greenpeace, acid rain, global warming, smog, alternative forms of transport, power station, recycling, pollution. 6. Translate into English

1. Захоронение токсичных отходов в земле приводит к загрязнению почвы
2. В результате глобального потепления сухие тропические регионы могут стать еще суше, а влажные – еще влажнее.
3. Во многих больших городах мира воду из местных водоемов и рек пить невозможно, так как она загрязнена промышленными отходами.
4. Людям всего земного шара нужно беречь природу. Reading and discussion

1. Read the text and answer the questions below
Environment: Problems and solutions
The Earth is 4,600 million years old. Modern man has lived on the Earth for only 35,000years but, in that time, we have changed our planet in many ways. Many of things we have done are good, but many, many more are not good for the Earth.
In the last 40 years, the population of the world has doubled. By the year 2200, it will probably be 10,000 million. This means that we must change the way we use energy and natural resources. We must also look after the environment.
Problems
Pollution is damage to the air, sea, rivers or land caused by chemicals, waste and harmful gases. The biggest polluter today is the car. Exhaust fumes are the main cause of bad air quality, which can make people feel ill and have difficulty breathing. This problem is especially bad in big cities where, on days when there is not much wind, a brown layer of smog hangs in the air. The number of cars is increasing every year and this causes serious congestion. Governments build new roads trying to improve the situation, but this means that they cut down trees and destroy more of the countryside.
The greenhouse effect is caused by harmful gases known as greenhouse gases. These gases are produced when we burn fuels, especially coal burned in power stations to make electricity. The gases go up into the Earth’s atmosphere and stop heat from leaving the Earth. As the heat cannot escape, the temperature on the Earth is running up. This is known as global warming. Global warming may result in the melting of the ice at the Poles and rising sea levels, leading to serious flooding and other disasters in many parts of the world. In other places the temperature will rise and there will be less rain, turning more of the land into desert.
Holes in the ozone layer. The ozone layer is a layer of gases that protects us from ultraviolet light coming from the sun, which can have a harmful effect on animals and causes skin cancer in humans.
Acid rain is a rain harmful to the environment because it contains acid from factory smoke. Acid rains cause damage to trees, rivers and buildings.
Species extinction is a natural feature of the evolution of life on earth, the best-known example is the disappearance of the dinosaurs. In the last 400 years, however, human activities have been responsible for the loss of most of the animals and plants that have disappeared.
Deforestation is the term used to describe the disappearance of forests from large parts of the world’s surface. Deforestation has been occurring steadily since the 20th century.
Solutions
Alternative forms of transport. One of the main problems with cars is that they cause a lot of pollution and often carry only one person. Public transport is more environmentally friendly because buses and trains can carry large numbers of people at the same time. Even cleaner solutions are electric cars and bicycles.
Alternative energy sources such as wind wave and solar power do not pollute the environment. They are much cleaner than oil and coal, but it’s more difficult to get them regularly.
Recycling is another solution: instead of throwing away glass, paper, cans can taken to special “banks” and recycle there.
Protesting. Many people try to protect the environment by joining environmental groups that inform people about ecological problems and try to persuade governments to take more care of the environment, especially by organizing protests. 2 Answer the questions on the text

a) Why is the car the biggest polluter? What are other polluters?
b) Why can the greenhouse effect be dangerous?
c) What do you know about holes in the ozone layer?
d) what are of the alternative forms of transport? Can they really solve the problem of air pollution?
e) What is recycling?
f) Do you think the protests organized by the “greens” are really effective? 3. Translate from Russian into English

Одна из главных проблем            охранять окружающую среду
Перевозить к.-л.                    информировать
Одновременно                    убеждать
Выбрасывать                    наносить ущерб
Перерабатывать                    выхлопные газы
Исправить положение                сжигать топливо
Вырабатывать электричество            пустыня
Защищать                        вызывать, быть причиной 4. Which word in each line is odd one out? Why?

Car            bicycle        plane            space rocket
To pollute        to harm        to litter        to recycle
Rain            flooding        melting        air pollutes
Ultraviolet light    acid rain        smog            the greenhouse effect 5. True or False

1. Pollution is damage to the air, sea, rivers or land caused by people
2. The number of cars is increasing every year and this causes serious congestion.
3. Deforestation is the term used to describe the disappearance of rivers
4. Acid rains cause damage to trees, birds and cars
5. Many people try to protect the environment by joining environmental groups 6 Points for discussion

•    Observe environmental problems and solutions to them.
•    Think of some consequences of the environmental problems.
•    Do you think that the condition of the environment depends only on industry or on ordinary people too?
•    We often hear the words “harmful effects of civilization on nature”. What do they mean?
Speaking and writing
1. Work with a partner
a)     A: you want to construct a new car park next to B’s house
     B: persuade him not to do that
b)     A: You want to drink some tap water
     B: warn A against doing that 2 . Work in pairs. Imagine that you are on a television programme called “Save the Earth!”. Prepare some questions and answers. One of you  can be an “expert” and the other can be the interviewer. For example:

What problems are there with the environment?
What can we do with our rubbish? 3. Work in small groups. What problems are there now with the environment? What do you think the alternative ways to make energy?
4. How can you “Save it, Recycle it, Reduce it” in your school? Make a list of your ideas

Глава 2 Climate
Essential vocabulary
Area
Avalanche
Average
Carbon dioxide
Climate
Coastal
Current
Desert
Draught
Efficiency
Emission
To emit
Flood
Feature
Forecast
Flat
    Gale
Heat
To insulate
Ice cap
Hurricane
Landslide
Level
Mankind
Proven
Reflect
To succeed
Short - term
Temperate
Threat
Wildfire Vocabulary practice

1. Find  Russian equivalents to the following words
Avalanche                Ice cap
Average                 To insulate
Carbon dioxide            Mankind
Coastal                 Reflect
Efficiency                 Short - term
Emission                 Temperate 2. Match the words in list A with the words in list B

A                    B
Global                Age
Climate                Cans
Average                Gases
Coastal                Warming
Ice                    Expert
Sea                    Temperature
Greenhouse                Areas
Recycle                Level 3. Put the letters in the right order

orafscet, hotdrug, elasdnidl, lecamit, lgea, egareva, tenrurc
4. Read the sentences below and decide which answer, A, B or C best fits each space
1. Experts predict that the global…..temperature will rise by 2-3 degrees.
    A middle        B average        C high
2. As the arctic ice cap melts, a flow of fresh water will change….. .
    A energy        B attitude        C current
3. People began to….temperature not so long ago.
    A measure        B reduce        C take
4. People should use clean….such as wind and solar power.
    A lifestyle        B energy             C method

5. What type of climate does each of these sentences describe?

Polar climate            Tropical climate
Desert climate            Cool temperate climate
Monsoon climate            Warm temperate climate 1.    It is very cold with strong dry winds

2.    In areas with this climate, there are two very different seasons – a wet one and dry one.
3.    It is always hot and there is a lot of rain.
4.    Places with this climate have very hot, dry summers – often over 40 degrees/
5.    It rains almost all the year and it is usually very warm
6.    It is very hot but at night it gets very cold.
Reading and discussion

1. Read the text and explain the underlined words

Is our climate changing?
Jerome K. Jerome said that we are never happy with the weather.  The weather, like the government, is always in the wrong. But something has been really wrong with it lately. Draughts, wildfires, landslides, tornadoes, floods, avalanches, gales… . All over the Europe it’s the same story. The weather is definitely getting worse and the so–called extreme weather events are becoming more and more frequent. Scientists have noticed it too. Their explanation is short: the cause is global warming.
What is global warming?
Greenhouse effect is actually a natural feature  of our atmosphere without which life on our planet would be impossible. Certain atmospheric gases ( the most important of them is carbon dioxide – CO2 ) work as a kind of blanket, keeping the Earth warm. The amount of these “greenhouse” gases used to be more or less the same for centuries. But the industrial revolution broke this balance. Because of heavy industry and other human activities the amounts of CO2 and other gases have increased by 30%.
Climate experts predict that by 2050 the global average temperature will rise by 2-3 degrees. It doesn’t see much. Remember, however, that the difference between the average global temperature s now and the last ice age  ( 20,000 years ago ) is only 6 to 8 degrees.
So what could happen?
Northern regions will be warmer and wetter, southern regions will be drier and hotter. Forests will grow instead of tundra in Siberia. It will be possible to grow grapes in Britain. Not so bad so far. But parts of Spain, Italy and Greece will turn as dry as a desert. Snow will melt in the Alps and the water will cause floods, landslides and avalanches. Sea levels will rise and a lot of coastal areas will disappear under the water.
Moreover, some experts argue that the short-term global warming will lead to a more catastrophic long-term global cooling. As the arctic ice cap melts, a flow of fresh water will change currents.
What shall we do?
Certainly we can cheer ourselves up with the idea that this forecast is far from proven. After all, people began to measure temperature not so long ago. The climatologic history of the world is long and man’s knowledge of it is short.
But it doesn’t mean that we can just sit and wait. Since the global warming  is the result of air pollution, the main thing is to lower greenhouse gases emissions. People should use clean energy , such as wind, solar and wave power, which do not emit greenhouse gases. If we recycle cans and paper, insulate our homes, take public transport and think about energy efficiency in the home – switching off unused light, for example, we’ll reduce the threat of global climate change.
The question is: Will mankind succeed in making such radical changes in attitudes and lifestyles in time? 2. Try to answer the last question in the text
3. True or False
a) The weather is definitely getting better and the so–called extreme weather events are becoming more and more frequent
b) Global warming is actually a natural feature  of our atmosphere without which life on our planet would be impossible
c) Climate experts predict that by 2050 the global average temperature will rise by 3-4 degrees.
d) It won’t be possible to grow grapes in Britain
e) As the arctic ice cap melts, a flow of dirty water will change currents.
f) The climatologic history of the world is long and man’s knowledge of it is long too.
g) If we recycle cans and paper, insulate our homes, take public transport and think about energy efficiency in the home – switching off unused light, for example, we’ll increase the threat of global climate change. 4. Translate into English

Пресная вода, выброс энергии, климатическая история, изменение течения, становиться сухим как пустыня, сход ледника, деятельность человека, перерабатывать бумагу, измерять температуру, ледниковый период, частое явление, нарушать баланс, предсказывать погоду.

5. Complete your own questions to the text with the phrases from ex.4
Speaking and writing
1. Work with a partner.
Look at the calendar and brainstorm your ideas to the class.
For example: it’s very windy in January. Sometimes planes can’t fly….. 2. Work in groups.

a) What type of climate do these countries have?
Greenland, Canada, China, Great Britain, Spain, Egypt
b) In each country, why do you think the houses are like that? Why do they eat that food? Why do they wear that clothes? 3. What do people have to do if there are floods, hurricanes, wildfires or snowstorms? Write a poster to give information about what to do. Use your imagination.
Глава 3. Endangered species
Essential vocabulary
Abandon
Nature
Reserve
Domestication
Donation
Shelter
Ignore
Commercial exploitation
Captivity
Extinct
Extinction
To survive
Swamp
To drain
Mammals
Reptiles
Habitat
    To damp
To prey
Soil
Pest
Lifespan
Tusk
Horn
Ivory
Slaughter
Alert
Poaching
Space
To occur
Vegetation
Amphibians
Insects Vocabulary practice

1. Which of the words from the box are connected with:
a) Harm that people do to animals
b) Measures aimed to help animals survive 2. Find the meaning of the words in English:

Nature            To damp
To prey            Reserve
Ivory                To survive
Slaughter            Extinction
Poaching            Space
Vegetation            Captivity
Domestication        Shelter

3. There is only one vocabulary mistake in each sentence. Find and correct them.

1. Wild animals are those that have been bred to live with people for thousand of years.
2. A nature reserve is a place where abandoned animals are kept.
3. The tiger, the mouse, the elephant are animals variants.
4. Plants and animals help to destroy the chemical balance of the atmosphere.
4. Fill in the gaps with the words below. Change the form if necessary.

Appealing        donation        abandon        shelter Battersea Dog’s Home is very famous home for lost and (1)……dogs and cats in London. The home gives dogs and cats medicine, food (2)…… and love. It tries to find the dogs a good home. Every year 27 dogs come to home. That’s about 10,000 a year! In Britain in many public places money-collecting boxes shaped like dogs or cats can be seen. They look very (3)…… and people can place their (4)…… to support such places as Battersea Dog’s Home.
5. Can you classify these animals?
Elephants, orangutans, alligators, bats, rabbits, foxes, lizards, koalas, pigeon, dove, tropical fish, dragonfly, salamander, lion, turtle, cockroach, frogs, snake, guinea pig, canary, tiger, hamster, dolphin, seal, echidna, platypus, parrot. Mammals    Reptiles    Amphibians    Birds    Fish    Insects

                    Reading and discussion

1. Read the text and answer the questions below
Australian Endangered Species
No one will ever see a paradise parrot fly across the sky again. Paradise parrots are extinct. Extinction is forever.
Since the settlement of Australia by Europeans in 1788, thirty species of mammals and birds and about 100 species of plants have become extinct. A further 57 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs and fish, many hundreds of plants are considered endangered and could become extinct within ten to twenty years.
The main cause of extinction is the destruction of habitats. A habitat contains all that a living thing needs to survive: space, light, water, food and shelter. Habitat destruction may occur when vegetation is cleared for agriculture, forestry, cities, mines or roads. It can also occur when swamps are drained or rivers are damped to store water. About 50 species of introduced animals live in the wild in Australia. These animals prey on native animals or compete with them for food and shelter.
Today we have a far greater understanding of the threats our wildlife faces than did the early settles. Yet still we have created added treats such as urban and industrial development, pollution, and pet and fur trade. Parrots, for example, are illegally transported overseas. Often the parrots cannot adapt to the new environment and die.
People are the only animals with the power to save endangered species. But, why save species? Without a variety of species, the earth may not be inhabitable by humankind. Plants and animals help to maintain the chemical balance of the atmosphere. Forests help to regulate water supplies. Plants and animals help to make soil. They provide food and control pests and diseases. They also provide a constant source of wonder and enjoyment. 2. Answer the following questions:

a). What does a living thing need to survive?
b). What is a main cause of extinction?
c). What can affect the lifespan of animals and plants?
d). Can extinction be reserved?
e). What kinds of threats does our wildlife face?
f). If people don’t protect animals, who will?
g). What do animals and plants provide? 3. Make your own sentences with the following:

The main cause of            Variety of species
To be clear                To store water
To drain swamps            Help to regulate
To have understanding        Constant source of wonder 4. Translate into English

1. Мы все – часть природной среды и должны отвечать за свои взаимодействия с нашей средой.
2. Если мы не начнем менять свое поведение , то нам станет негде жить.
3. мы должны думать о том, что наши действия могут непосредственно разрушить живую природу и среду обитания многих видов животных.
4. В 1916 году свыше двух миллионов коал были убиты из-за их красивого меха.
5. Дорога к вымиранию устелена кольцами, браслетами и разными поделками из слоновой кости. Все они прекрасны. Все мертвы.
6. Если ты пожертвуешь немного денег в фонд защиты животных, то сможешь спасти несколько животных от голода.
7. Коммерческую эксплуатацию диких животных следует сократить.
8. В настоящее время многих животных используют для медицинских исследований. 5. Points for discussion

1. People keep exotic pets for different reasons. What are they?
2. What can we make to protect animals from extinction?
3. What animals make good pets? Why?
4. Why do you think people use animals? Speaking and writing

1. A. In pairs, summarize what people depend on animals for?
Example: People depend on animals for power.
B. Say how the relationship between animals and people has changed in the course of time?
Example: I think people depend less on animals for power, because we use electricity, petrol and other sources of energy. 2. Work in groups. Which of the following can be called commercial exploitation of animals? Give your reasons.

Taking pictures of animals        Zoos            Pet shops
Cattle breeding                Fur industry        Animal shows 3. In small groups begin a Help Animal campaign. Follow the steps.

1. Choose one item below that seems to you most interesting and appealing:
Taking part in TV/ radio programme, joining social organizations, making appealing visuals (posters, leaflets), founding natural reserves/shelters, giving donations, organizing demonstrations.
2. To support your campaign make up one of the following materials:
A poster, a chart, a leaflet.
3. Brainstorm the ideas for your material.
4. Check your spelling and grammar.
5. Produce your version ready for a display. 4. Presentation

Choose one item from the list below for your presentation
A short report about a domestic animal
A pet brochure
A report on dinosaurs or extinct animals
Short story or essay
Follow the steps
1.    Prepare your presentation: think about your general attitude to the way people treat animals.
2.    Consider the points  connected with the topic of your presentation
3.    How are you going to present your material (display, read before class etc.)? Авторы: Гордина А. О

        Онищенко М. А.
        Караваева Л. А.
        Иванова Н. В.
 

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